The geographical area assigned to the production of DOC “Carso – Kras” wines is an area characterized by the presence of karst phenomena, i.e. bare rocky surfaces with an orography that consists of rocky outcrops and depressions. All of this constitutes a significant limitation for the agricultural use of the land. In addition, from a hydrographical point of view, the Karst is characterized by the presence of caves and caverns, which help to drain all the rainwater in a short time. It follows that one of the main features of the Karst region is the scarcity of water on the surface, which is partially retained by the red soil of the Karst, but the water holding capacity of soils is not enough for most agricultural crops, because the thickness of the arable layer is not enough.
The south-central area of the Province of Trieste that goes from the edge of the Karstic plateau to the coastline, is characterized by a rocky substrate with marly-sandstone lithology (Eocene flysch) of erosive type, which differs significantly from that karstic one. There are layers that alternate between sandstone and marl: the second ones are only a few millimetres thick, the first ones up to several centimetres.
The elevations range from sea level up to just over 650 meters. Much of the territory is encompassed by the Karstic plateau with average slopes ranging between 3 and 15%, while the remaining area consists of the Karst edge overlooking the sea, where the slopes are much steeper (30% and above), and often prohibitive for the exercise of agricultural activities.
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